Oil and Gas
Oil and Gas | Reservoir Engineering
Business Impact: By building a greater awareness of reservoir engineering principles, participants will be able to communicate more effectively with their Reservoir Engineering colleagues, ensuring better integration between disciplines, thereby improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of business activities.
This course examines the standard reservoir engineering processes and techniques, particularly their interface with geoscience activities. This course illustrates, with examples, the use of subsurface data in the construction of a reservoir model. It covers three related main themes: static reservoir models; developing dynamic reservoir simulation models; and reservoir management during the producing life of a field. This course covers the fundamentals of fluid flow in porous media, from a rock and fluid perspective. Reference is made to the application of reservoir engineering principles in carbon capture and storage (CCS).
Duration and Training Method
This is a classroom or virtual classroom course comprising a mixture of lectures, discussion, case studies, and practical exercises.
Participants will learn to:
- Operate more effectively, and work more collaboratively, with their Reservoir Engineering colleagues.
- Interpret original fluid contacts, through analysis of logs and pressure vs. depth profiles, prior to production start-up; understand saturation vs height relationships and estimate original hydrocarbon in place volumes, for both oil and gas reservoirs.
- Employ fluid sampling techniques. Differentiate the physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbons and their description through phase diagrams.
- Examine the uses and importance of well tests and appraise how analysis is conducted.
- Examine the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir, the balance of viscous, capillary and gravity forces and the impact of reservoir drive mechanisms including depletion, water and gas drive.
- Analyse production performance in the wellbore and debate artificial lift techniques. Compare production enhancement through stimulation, horizontal wells, and completion techniques.
- Examine the processes and interfaces of building both static and dynamic reservoir models. Show awareness of the principles, objectives, demands, and uses of reservoir numerical simulation techniques and its validation.
- Analyse the importance of continued reservoir management for forecasting future production profiles and maximising economic hydrocarbon recovery from a producing field over the complete life cycle.
- Compare the Enhanced Recovery techniques: steam and fire flooding; miscible and immiscible gas displacement.
- Understand key reservoir engineering principles as applied to carbon capture and storage (CCS).
The material covered in this course is built around the reservoir model, which can be constructed using analytical (calculator) or numerical (simulation) processes. The process is in three parts:
- Building a static reservoir model
- Developing a dynamic model
- Reservoir management during the producing life of a field
The following topics will be covered:
Basic Reservoir Rock And Fluid Description
Controls on fluid flow in the reservoir
- Rock permeability, and relationship with porosity
- Reservoir zonation; Darcy's Law and impact of permeability contrasts
Defining fluid contacts and estimating volumetrics
- Basic reservoir volumetrics
- Defining fluid contacts; RFT pressure measurements and Pressure vs Depth relationships
- Capillary pressures and saturation-height relationships
Reservoir fluid properties
- Fluid sampling
- Analysis of fluid samples
- Chemical properties of hydrocarbons
- Physical properties of hydrocarbons
- Phase diagrams
- Making use of the PVT report
Well test analysis
- Uses of well testing
- Planning a well test
- Well testing operations
- Well test analysis – determining kh, skin, PI, boundary effects
- Analysis principles
- Analysis techniques – semi-log and log-log analysis
- The components of total skin
- Special test types
Dynamic Behaviour of Reservoir Fluids
Material balance and fluid displacement
- Drive mechanisms; depletion, gas cap drive, water drive
- Material balance for oil reservoirs
- Material balance for gas reservoirs
- Fluid displacement on a macroscopic scale; sweep efficiency
- Fluid displacement on a microscopic scale; relative permeability
- Estimating recovery factors
- Diffuse and segregated flow regimes
- Buckley-Leverett displacement theory
Dynamic well performance
- The inflow performance relationship
- Tubing performance curves
- Artificial lift
- Coning and cusping
- Well completions
- Horizontal wells
- Well stimulation; fracturing and acidisation
- Gridding and simulation principles
- Input, output and visualisation
- Upscaling static and dynamic model properties
Measuring Reservoir Performance And Reservoir Management
- Overview of reservoir management
- Monitoring tools: pressure, PLT, TDT, RFT, MDT, XPT pressure data, production and injection data
- Well interventions and workovers
- Field analogues
- Decline curve analysis
- Analytical models
- Reservoir simulation and history matching
- Probabilistic production forecasting
- Reserves reporting
Enhanced oil recovery techniques
- Defining the target oil
- Mobility control (polymer)
- Miscible and immiscible techniques (surfactants, gas flooding)
- Thermal techniques (steam and fire flooding)
Carbon capture and storage (CCS)
- Selecting the container (saline aquifer, depleted gas fields)
- Displacement in the reservoir and residual gas
- Capillary trapping
Who Should Attend and Prerequisites
This course is aimed at Geoscientists and other subsurface professionals who interface with Reservoir Engineers in their regular work, or who wish to obtain a broad grounding in reservoir engineering principles. This course will also benefit new team leaders tasked with managing multi-disciplinary teams.
Mark Cook is a Principal Reservoir Engineer for TRACS International. His specialties are reservoir engineering, petroleum economics, and risk analysis and field development planning, subjects in which he has developed and delivers training courses to advanced levels.
Mark graduated with a degree in Chemical Engineering and has worked in the oil and gas industry since 1981, spending the first eleven years with Shell International as a reservoir engineer on field development projects, equity negotiations and operations in the UK, Oman, Tanzania and Holland. He then co-founded TRACS International in 1992, setting out to provide training and consultancy to the upstream industry. He built the business over time as Petroleum Engineer and Director, before taking on his current part-time role as Principal Reservoir Engineer.
He runs the SPE Short Course in Field Development Econmics, and has been an SPE Distinguished Lecturer in Risk Analysis. He is a guest lecturer at Heriot Watt Univeristy. He is co-author and editor of "Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production" (Jahn, Cook, Graham, 2008) and has written "Petroleum Econmics and Risk Analysis", published by Elsevier in January 2021.
Affiliations and Accreditation
MBA, Henley Management College
BSc, University of Nottingham, Chemical Engineering
Director, Delta-T Energy Consultancy Ltd. (Dublin)
N006: An Introduction to Reservoir Engineering for Geoscientists
N014: Petroleum Economics and Risk Analysis
N444: Development Planning For Mature Fields