Oil and Gas
This course teaches how to use geochemistry in the evaluation of exploration plays and prospects. The key elements to be discussed are the recognition and characterisation of source rocks, 1D and 3D thermal modelling, prediction of petroleum properties, correlation of oils and gases and genesis of biogenic gas deposits. Participants will be better prepared to assess charge risk, source rock effectiveness/ultimate generative potential and predict fluid phase in un-drilled prospects. These parameters are crucial to prospect ranking and decision making in exploration.
Duration and Training Method
This is a classroom course. The ratio of lecture to computer time is approximately 70/30 and consists of a series of lectures interspersed with practical exercises and case studies.
Participants will learn how to:
- Examine all relevant data required for constructing a 1D or 3D computer-based basin model, including a sound chronostratigraphic framework, thermal profiles, the impact of unconformities and maturity measurements to calibrate the model.
- Determine the limitations and uncertainties inherent in such models.
- Analyse source rocks and their petroleum generating potential using the following types of geochemical data: total organic carbon, vitrinite reflectance, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography.
- Employ carbon isotopic data, gas chromatographic fingerprints and basic biological markers (GCMS) to undertake basic correlation of oil to oil and oil to source rock and to infer depositional environment of source rocks.
- Distinguish the types and origins of natural gas and be able to determine their origin using carbon isotope signatures.
- Differentiate the various types of biogenic gas accumulation and be aware of the challenges in modelling their formation.
This course will teach exploration staff and others how to use the various items in the geochemistry toolbox to evaluate play fairways and individual prospects. The key elements to be discussed will be:
- Recognition and evaluation of source rocks
- 1D and 3D modelling principles and practices
- Uncertainties when estimating (1) timing of petroleum generation, (2) expelled products, (3) volumes of oil and gas and (4) prospect charging
- Prediction of petroleum properties
- Correlation of oils and gases
- Genesis of biogenic gas accumulations
2. 1D basin modelling
- Generation and expulsion processes and kinetics
- Rock-Eval parameters: S1, S2, HI, Tmax etc.
- Pyrolysis GC
- Reconstructing burial history
- Source rock parameters
3. 3D basin modelling
- Principles of primary and secondary migration
- Integration into basin models
- Phase effects during migration
4. Petroleum properties and correlation
- Oil properties and alteration: controls of GOR, API, S content, viscosity etc.
- Oil correlation: gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, stable isotopes
- Determining source and maturity of natural gas
- Alteration processes
5. Biogenic gas accumulation
- Methanogenic archaea and how they work
- Primary biogenic gases
- Secondary biogenic gases
- Gas hydrate deposits
Who Should Attend and Prerequisites
Exploration and Development/Production Geoscientists of any experience who come into contact with geochemistry or basin modelling during their work. Reservoir engineers looking to broaden their understanding of the origin and properties of fluids could also benefit from attendance on this course.
Chris joined the BP Research Centre in 1982 where he somehow became an organic geochemist. During this time he researched among other things, isotopic behaviour in the petroleum system, kerogen formation processes, biogenic gas generation and controls of petroleum seepage.
Chris left BP at the end of 1992 and has since worked as an independent consultant in geochemistry and basin modelling to the petroleum, minerals and groundwater industries. He now lives in the middle of nowhere in the heart of the English countryside near Worcester.
Affiliations and Accreditation
PhD King’s College London and the Institute of Geological Sciences Isotope Geology Unit, Silica Diagenesis jointly with Chert Formation
BSc Imperial College, University of London- Geology
N084: Petroleum Generation & Migration
N010: Petroleum Geochemistry & Basin Modelling