Oil and Gas
This course applies the physical principles that govern subsurface fluid flow and phase behaviour to the prediction of reservoir and well performance. It describes methods for: reserve estimation; analyzing fluid flow in porous media; interpreting well and reservoir performance; assessing the performance of primary and secondary recovery processes. New technologies are described where appropriate. Participants are encouraged to bring short case studies to discuss informally in class.
Duration and Training Method
This is a five-day course comprising of lectures, exercises and class discussions. Participants are required to bring along their own PC laptops running Excel.
Participants will learn to:
- Estimate “in place” and “recoverable” volumes of petroleum, and categorise them using industry-standard definitions.
- Develop production forecasts for oil and gas fields using decline curves derived for wells and/or reservoirs, taking into account rate constraints.
- Estimate the inflow performance of fractured, horizontal, solution gas drive and gas wells by extending the semi-steady state solution of the radial flow equation.
- Characterise the principles of pressure transient and rate transient analysis
- Appraise the results from laboratory PVT experiments to reservoir engineering calculations.
- Estimate aquifer influx into oil and gas reservoirs undergoing depletion, and incorporate this in the prediction of reservoir performance.
- Predict the behaviour of an oil reservoir producing under solution gas drive.
- Predict the behaviour of both homogeneous and layered reservoirs using fractional flow theory.
- Characterise the basic principles behind numerical reservoir simulation and streamline simulation.
- Simple analytical models for fractured reservoirs.
Day 1: Reserves and production forecasting
- Volumetric calculations
- Reserves classification
- Probabilistic and deterministic reserves
- Decline curves
- The components of a production profile
- Production forecasting using decline curves
Day 2: The radial flow equation
- Solutions of practical interest
- Inflow performance
- Pressure transient analysis
- Introduction to rate transient analysis
Day 3: Phase behaviour
- The “Black Oil” model
- PVT sampling
- Laboratory analysis
- Flash calculations
- Introduction to Equation-of-State
- Oil and gas PVT correlations
Day 4: Material balance
- The Material Balance equation
- Drive indices
- Aquifer models
- The “Extended Black Oil” model
- GOR prediction
- Introduction to Tank Models
Day 5: Immiscible displacement
- Relative permeability and capillary pressure
- Preparation of relative permeability data
- Fractional flow theory
- Displacement models
- Introduction to numerical models
- Fractured reservoirs
Who Should Attend and Prerequisites
Mid-level engineers seeking to consolidate their understanding of analytical reservoir engineering methods or more senior engineers who require a refresher in this area.
Alun Griffiths graduated from Imperial College, London in 1982 with a First Class Honours degree in Chemical Engineering. He joined Shell International Petroleum Maatschapij after graduating and spent four months on a training assignment in The Netherlands before being transferred to Thailand. Alun spent nearly 4 years in Thailand, working on the wellsite for 18 months and then in the office as an operations engineer. He was posted back to the UK in 1986 and joined the Brent Field Business Unit, where he worked in a variety of reservoir engineering positions. In 1990, Alun left Shell and joined Intera-ECL as a reservoir engineering consultant, where he remained until 1998. During his time at Intera-ECL, Alun worked on a wide range of reservoir engineering projects across the globe, with particular emphasis on reservoir simulation, field evaluation and development planning. He also presented a number of ECLIPSE simulation courses and managed a large field rehabilitation feasibility study, sponsored by the World Bank, of the Kala-Buzovni Mashtagi and Bibi Eybat fields in Azerbaijan; the Bibi Eybat field is one of the oldest producing fields in the world, having been in production since the 1870’s.
In 1998, Alun became a freelance reservoir engineer, through his own consulting company Griffin Petroleum Consulting Ltd. He has worked for large and small companies, on a wide variety of international reservoir engineering projects, ranging from the simulation of small gas discoveries to the evaluation of large, mature oil fields. He has taught a postgraduate module on Petroleum Technology to M.Sc. Petroleum Geosciences course, now at Manchester University, since 2003 and has also given a number of in-house courses to various clients on reservoir modeling, reservoir engineering and ECLIPSE.
Affiliations and Accreditation
BSc Imperial College, London - Chemical Engineering
N448: Practical Reservoir Performance Analysis
N933: Basic Petroleum Engineering
N936: Intermediate Petroleum Engineering
N966: Integrated Reservoir Characterisation and Performance Prediction