Oil and Gas
This course examines aspects of structural interpretation in different tectonic regimes, from outcrop to regional scale. This is achieved through the use of field examples, petroleum industry case studies, seismic exercises and scaled analogue modeling examples. Key aspects of extensional, inversion, strike-slip and thrust tectonic regimes are described, analysed and reviewed at outcrop and in the classroom.
The fundamentals of structural geology are key to exploration methods and workflows and in particular the formation and type of traps. This course provides participants with the skills and knowledge to define structural settings and characteristics at basin, play and prospect scales.
Duration and Training Method
A five-day combined field and classroom course based in SW England – North Somerset, North Devon and North Cornwall. Field to classroom time is approximately 50:50. The training method will be lectures, practical exercises both in the field and classroom and discussion. Numerous seismic examples will be shown. Principles developed within the classroom will be illustrated in the field.
Participants will learn to:
- Appraise different tectonic regimes, to classify fault systems and to understand and evaluate the 4D geometries and evolution of fault systems in different tectonic regimes.
- Recognize and interpret characteristic seismic expressions of different tectonic regimes as well as evaluate the tectono-stratigraphic sequences associated with different tectonic events.
- Assess the fundamental geometries of extensional fault systems - planar and listric - in both 2D and in 3D, using analogues and field examples. Characterise fault geometries and fault sequences and their seismic expressions in different extensional environments from rift systems and passive margins to delta systems.
- Evaluate and identify the distinguishing characteristics of inverted rift basins and the 4D geometric and kinematic evolution of inverted fault systems. Characterise structural styles of inversion and seismic expressions and assess hydrocarbon trap styles in inverted terranes.
- Evaluate the fundamental dynamics and characteristic structural styles of strike-slip terranes and their 4D evolution. Assess models of 4D evolution of strike-slip fault systems and to recognize the seismic expressions of strike-slip fault systems.
- Assess the 4D evolution of thrust systems, thrust wedge dynamics and thrust fault-related folds. Characterise structural styles of thrust and fold belts and the characteristic hydrocarbon traps in these terranes. To understand the dynamic evolution of thrust systems using scaled physical models. Interpret seismic sections in thrust and fold belts and to evaluate the 4D evolution of thrust fold systems using the analysis of syn-kinematic growth strata.
- Critically assess and interpret field outcrops, seismic sections at the prospect and field scale by applying the concepts of geometries, kinematics and 4D evolution as given in this course. Evaluate seismic interpretations and map interpretations of different tectonic regimes.
- Judge the effects of structural development on hydrocarbon reservoirs – reservoir compartmentalization, sub-seismic scale fault systems, fault and fracture networks, fault sealing concepts and the development of fractured reservoirs.
This course aims to familiarise participants with structural geological principles applied to extensional, compressional and strike-slip regimes.
The class will cover the following topics:
- Tectonic regimes; fault systems and fault classifications; fault mechanics, fault rocks and fluid flow.
- Geometries of extensional faults – planar and listric faults; analogue models of extensional fault systems; rift tectonics and sedimentation; - extensional case histories – Basin and Range SW USA, Gulf of Suez.
- Inversion tectonics; settings for inversion; geometries of inverted fault systems; 2D and 3D models of inversion structures; case histories of inverted basins.
- Strike-slip systems; fundamental tectonic settings; 3D kinematic evolution of strike-slip fault systems; analogue modeling of strike-slip structures; natural examples of strike-slip fault systems.
- Thrust systems; fundamental geometries of thin-skinned fold and thrust belts; kinematics of thrust systems; fault-related folding; growth strata in fold and thrust belts; hydrocarbon traps in fold and thrust belts.
- Prospect and field-scale structural geology; fault sealing characteristics; sub-seismic scale faulting and fracturing; structural compartmentalisation of reservoirs; fractured reservoirs.
The classroom lectures and presentations will show field, remote sensing and seismic examples of the key tectonic styles and fault systems. In particular they will be complemented by scaled analogue models that demonstrate how these fault systems evolve through time.
Classroom lectures and exercises will be complemented by directly relevant superb regional and outcrop examples in the field component of the course.
Please note that this itinerary may be modified depending on prevailing weather and light conditions.
Participants travel to Dunster. In the evening there is a short introduction and safety briefing before a group dinner.
Day 1. Extensional Tectonics and Extensional Fault Systems I
Classroom lectures, exercises and field excursion.
Introduction to fundamental tectonic regimes; fault geometries and mechanics; extensional fault systems – planar and listric fault systems. Seismic interpretation exercises.
Field excursion – Kilve. 3D seismic scale extensional fault systems.
Day 2. Extensional Tectonics and Extensional Fault Systems II
Classroom lectures and exercises and field excursion
3D extensional fault systems, rift systems, case-histories. Seismic interpretation exercises.
Field excursion – Kilve and Watchet. 3D seismic scale extensional fault systems, relay ramps, and inversion structures.
Day 3. Inversion Tectonics
Classroom lectures and exercises.
Inversion tectonics and inverted extensional fault systems; inversion case histories. Strike-slip tectonics, strike-slip fault systems, analogue models and structural styles.
Seismic interpretation exercises.
Travel to Bude with field excursion to Hartland Quay enroute - Fold and Thrust systems.
Day 4. Strike-Slip Tectonics and Thrust Tectonics
Strike-slip tectonics, strike-slip fault systems, analogue models and structural styles.
Introduction to thrust tectonics.
Field excursion – Bude and Maer cliff - Thrust systems.
Day 5. Thrust Tectonics and Thrust Fault-Related Folding
Classroom lectures and exercises.
Thrust tectonics; thin-skinned thrust systems; thrust fault-related folding; growth strata; analogue models of thrust systems; hydrocarbons and fold and thrust belts.
Field excursion – Widemouth Bay and Millhook Haven. Thrust related fold systems and small scale deformation in thrust systems.
Who Should Attend and Prerequisites
Geophysicists, geologists, petrophysicists and engineers with an interest in the controls on structure and deformation from basin to play and prospect scale.
Ken has carried out wide-ranging research on all aspects of structural geology applied to both the mining and petroleum industries. This has included field-based research on areas such as the Moine Thrust Zone, NW Scotland, the Spanish Pyrenees, Indonesia, Yemen, Australia, Canada, USA, Chile, Argentina, Greenland, Turkey, Ethiopia and Gulf of Suez – Red Sea Egypt. He has directed and carried out regional and detailed mapping programs in the Canadian Cordillera, Newfoundland, SW USA, Alaska, NW Scotland, Argentina, Chile, UK, Spain, Norway, Brazil, Egypt and Yemen. His research interests include extensional, strike-slip, thrust and inversion terranes. He runs a large experimental analogue modeling laboratory for the simulation of fault structures and sedimentary architectures at Royal Holloway University of London. Ken has written a book for mapping structures in the field, edited four major volumes on Thrust Tectonics and has published widely on structural geology and tectonics (over 150 papers in international journals). He is a consultant for both the international mining and petroleum industries. He has given many short courses to industry in Indonesia, India, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Norway, UK, USA, Australia, Egypt, Canada, Iran, Alaska, the Philippines and PNG. He was the 1994–1995 Bennison (USA) and 1999 Roy M. Huffington (International) Distinguished Lecturer for AAPG.
Affiliations and Accreditation
DSc University of Adelaide - Structural Geology and Tectonics
PhD Imperial College, University of London -Structural Geology
MSc Imperial College, University of London- Structural Geology and Rock Mechanics
BS Adelaide University Australia, Honors - Economic Geology
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy - Chartered Engineer - Fellow
Geological Society of London - Fellow
AAPG - Member
N016: Structural Geology for Petroleum Exploration (Nevada, USA)
N116: Structural Geology for Petroleum Exploration (Somerset, England)
N220: Structural Geology and Seismic Interpretation for Petroleum Exploration and Production
N325: Advanced Structural Interpretation for Petroleum Exploration and Development in Fold and Thrust belts