Oil and Gas
Oil and Gas | Clastics
Also, vertical scales of 10 to 20 meters are often below seismic resolution, making it difficult to predict in that scale facies variations occurring in distances of 1 to 2 kilometers, which are common well-spacings in production deep-water projects. Seismic-scale outcrops like the ones from the Brushy Canyon Formation help fill this gap in showing lateral and vertical variations in facies in scales that are not represented by data using conventional, industry seismic and wells.
This field course is designed for geoscientists and engineers exploring for and producing deep-water (DW) reservoirs globally, and particularly in the Permian Basin. At the end of this course, participants should have improved abilities to recognize deep-water depositional facies and reservoir architecture, as well as how to use sequence stratigraphy to identify and map key surfaces for DW exploration. The Guadalupe and Delaware mountains in west Texas and New Mexico show unique, world-class exposures of shelfal to slope and basinal settings with seismic-scale, continuous exposures. These exceptional outcrops are ideal to learn about depositional systems, lateral and vertical variations in facies and sequence stratigraphic architecture and surfaces. Coeval shelfal to deep-water environments are exposed both downdip and along strike, with clear stratigraphic relationships from a carbonate shelf margin incised by canyons, feeding confined to weakly confined channel systems, connected to distributive lobe complexes and distal fan fringe sandstones that thin and pinch out onto a basin margin far removed from siliciclastic sediment sources.
Duration and Training Method
This is a field course, supported by classroom lectures. Almost every field stop includes exercises that illustrate and reinforce the key concepts and methods discussed in lectures and documented in the course notes.
- Recognize main archetypes of deep-water-reservoirs, relating them to exploration strategies and production behavior
- How to interpret key stratigraphic surfaces based on changes in lithofacies stacking and associations.
- How to interpret DW EoD’s based on lithofacies associations, stacking and diversity
- How to use outcrop analogues and depositional models to better understand 3-D distribution of reservoir facies.
- Analyze exposures of carbonate shelf and ramp to siliciclastic basinal systems in order to relate depositional facies to seismic scale geometries and sequence stratigraphy.
- Examine seismic scale outcrop geometries, document outcrop facies, and demonstrate similarities to productive intervals in the Permian Basin.
- Apply Walter’s Law and chronostratigraphic principles in core, well-log and seismic interpretation, and relate to prediction of play elements and best productive intervals for unconventional resources.
- Analyze sequence stratigraphy for carbonates and mixed carbonate-clastic depositional systems.
- Arrive in El Paso, Texas.
- Morning: Introductory lecture and safety briefing.
- Depart El Paso - 2-hour drive to Salt Flat Graben, Texas.
- Stop 1.1: Salt Flat Graben – Regional Geology and Stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. Geology of the Guadalupe and Delaware Mountains.
- Stop 1.2: Rest Area – front of El Capitan + Lunch. Architectural Elements of Channel Systems.
- Stop 1.3: Road Cut. Channel fills – facies, stacking and erosional features
- Evening overview lecture and dinner.
- Overnight: Van Horn
- Reservoir Architecture of Distributive Deep-Water Systems.
- Delaware Mountain Ranch - 2 hour drive from hotel.
- Stop 2.1: Overview of Brushy Canyon Formation in outcrops along the Southern Basin Margin, Southern Delaware Mountains
- Stop 2.2: Terminator Canyon - Establish Stratigraphic Framework and Hierarchy for Sandstone-rich Succession from Vertical Profiles, Upper Brushy Canyon
- Stop 2.3: Carol Canyon. Facies and facies stacking.
- Overnight: Van Horn
- Submarine Canyon and Upper Slope Systems: Slope Discordances and Canyon Fills. Brushy Canyon Formation. Guadalupe Mountains National Park.
- Drive to Guadalupe Mountains National Park (3 hours)
- Stop 3.1: Slope Facies and Architecture, Rest Area Gully
- Stop 3.2: Mass Transport Deposits of the Lower Brushy Canyon Formation, Rest Area Gully
- Stop 3.3: Thin-bedded sandstone architecture, Lower Brushy Canyon, Rest Area Gully
- Overnight: Carlsbad, New Mexico.
- Sequence Stratigraphic Controls on Deep-Water Systems. Shelfal by-pass during lowstand. Facies, facies stacking and stratal geometries during transgression and highstand.
- Stop 4.1: Last Chance Canyon. Transgressive and highstand systems tracts on the shelf, by-pass surfaces and sequence boundaries. Full-day in the field.
- Overnight: Carlsbad, New Mexico.
- Sequence Sets and Composite Sequences. Shoreline Trajectories and recognition criteria for Composite Sequence Boundaries
- Stop 5.1: Slaughter Canyon. Shoreline trajectory and progradational patterns – lowstand x highstand.
- Stop 5.2: West Face. Final exercise and school wrap-up
- Fly home from El Paso.
Who Should Attend and Prerequisites
The course is relevant to all subsurface geoscientists who wish to broaden and deepen their knowledge of deep marine clastic plays.
Vitor Abreu has 28 years of experience in the oil industry in petroleum exploration, development production and research, with a proven record in evaluating, risking and/or drilling in 22 countries and 31 sedimentary basins in the 6 continents. His areas of expertise include projects in exploration, development and production of deep water reservoirs, regional studies to define the petroleum system elements and key plays in frontier exploration, tectono-stratigraphic evolution of basins in different tectonic settings, maturing opportunities to drillable status, and play to prospect risking assessment. His experience in development and production includes several field studies in different depositional environments, with high-resolution stratigraphic interpretation integrated to engineering data to define reservoir connectivity and main baffles and barriers for effective field development plans. On research, Vitor is considered one of the world leaders on reservoir characterization of deep water systems, proposing new deep water models with strong impact in development and production.
Vitor has been an Adjunct Professor at Rice University since 1999, where he took responsibility for the course on Sequence Stratigraphy after Peter Vail’s retirement. He was the recipient of the Jules Braunstein Memorial Award (best poster presenta-tion, 2002 AAPG Annual Meeting) and was appointed AAPG’s inaugural international Distinguished Instructor in 2006. He is the current President-Elect of SEPM and has been organizing and chairing technical sessions at annual meetings for both AAPG and SEPM. More than 1000 students globally have taken his short course on “Sequence Stratigraphy for Graduate Students” since 2000. This course has been taught at annual meetings, international meetings, universities, and companies around the world. Vitor is the chief editor of SEPM’s “Sequence Stratigraphy of Siliciclastic Systems”, which has sold more than 3000 copies since publication in 2010.
Affiliations and Accreditation
PhD Rice University - Geology & Geophysics
MSc Federal University of Rio Grande - Geology
BA Federal University of Rio Grande - Geology
N410: Sequence Stratigraphy Applied to Exploration and Production
N442: Reservoir Architecture of Deep Water Systems (California, USA)
N468: Deep Water Reservoirs – Exploration Risking and Development Characterisation (Distance Learning)
N517: Well Log Sequence Stratigraphy for Exploration and Production (Distance Learning)
N518: Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy for Exploration and Production (Distance Learning)
N526: Sequence Stratigraphic Controls on Deep-Water Reservoirs Architecture: Brushy Canyon Formation,Permian Basin (West Texas and New Mexico, USA)